What made Timbuktu an expert trading center?

700 years ago, Timbuktu was an expert trading center because it was geographically convenient, had resources that other places wanted and needed, and it was accessible from all directions with a river for transportation nearby.

  • Timbuktu had a useful location for trading because north of timbuktu there lies a desert, yet south of the city there is a river, providing simple transportation for goods and people.
  • Timbuktu is an easy spot to pass through because of its location.
  • Salt was a significant good in trade, yet not a lot of places had it, but Timbuktu did, giving the upper hand.

Works Cited

Cartwright, Mark. “The Salt Trade of Ancient West Africa.” Ancient History Encyclopedia.

Gale Virtual Reference Library. Farmington Hills, Cengage Learning, 2016. Accessed 19 Mar. 2019.

Moss, Marissa. “Tales from Timbuktu: long ago, gold and salt made Timbuktu rich. Today, the gold is gone. Yet the city is trying to save an even greater treasure.” National Geographic Explorer: Pioneer, Mar. 2009, p. 12+. Kids InfoBits, https://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A197492656/ITKE?u=maine&sid=ITKE&xid=a5a34e33. Accessed 25 Mar. 2019.

Quigley, Mary. Ancient West African Kingdoms: Ghana, Mali & Songhai. Chicago,   Illinois, Heinemann Library, 2013.

Salisbury, Joyce E. “Timbuktu.” The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Global Medieval Life and Culture, Westport, Connecticut. London, Greenwood Press. The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Global Medieval Life and Culture. Accessed 10 Mar. 2019.

Wikipedia. “Timbuktu.” Wikipedia- the free encyclopedia. Wikipedia, 3 Jan. 2019,     en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timbuktu. Accessed 20 Mar. 2019.















How does mobile technology affect the health, economy, communication, and education of Sub-Saharan Africans?

Research Question: How does mobile technology affect the health, economy, communication, and education of Sub-Saharan Africans?

Thesis: Mobile technology can transform the lives of Africans for the better by improving economy by educating people about gender equality, teaching language, etc., it makes communication much easier, and it can keep health records and give health reminders like for vaccinations.

Topic Sentence #1: The economy can be improved by mobile technology and improve the lives of Africans.

Topic Sentence #2: Mobile technology makes communicating much easier and efficient for everyone.

Topic Sentence #3: Mobile broadband improves the health of the community and can even save lives.

Works Cited

Afolabi, Bosede. How mobile technology helps reduce maternal mortality during childbirth in West Africa. QuartzAfrica, 11 July 2015.

Ahead of the Global Game? Connectivity and Technology in Africa, 13 July 2015, Cellphones in Africa. FoodTank, Coleman, Gary.

How Africa can lead the way in the Fourth Industrial Revolution. World Economic Forum, 5 May 2016.

EdTech in Africa, for Africa. Series V, 13 Apr. 2018,

El-Khalili, Sarah. Mobile Technology: Bridging The African Digital Divide. 19 May 2015,

“Feather Boots by Captainstupidity.” Creative Commons Future possibilities of mobile health in the African context. 6 Dec. 2018,

How can mobile technology contribute to the improvement of health in Africa?

How Mobile Technology Is Transforming Africa. TranslateMedia,

Inovation Is Increasingly Local. 25 Apr. 2015. The Pioneering Continent, The Economist, Jaschke, Leigh. Mobile Phones for Adult Basic Education in West Africa. Sept. 2010,

Masai Warriors and Mobile Phones.

MATHEMATICS ON A SOCIAL NETWORK. 18 Nov. 2013. Digital Undivide

A Mobile Inovation In The South African Education System. The Reach Trust, 12 Sept. 2014,

Mobile Technology Serves Healthcare Workers In Kenya. MHealth Kenya,

Newspaper and stationary stand and cell phone kiosk on sidewalk, Kampala Road, Kampala, Uganda. 8 Dec. 2017. dreamstime,

Phone 650. Self Help Africa, 29 Apr. 2015,

Praekelt, Gustav. Mobile opportunity for learning in Africa. July 2011.

PUGET SOUND BUSINESS JOURNAL: UW RECEIVES GRANT FOR MOBILE HEALTH CARE TECHNOLOGY IN AFRICA. Department Of Global Health, 24 Mar. 2016,

Schmid, Alexander. Get Africa Connected. one.org, 8 July 2015,

Studying with a virtual tutor can be fun. ShareAmerica, 25 July 2016,

Sub-Sahran map. Sub-Saharan African Real Estate Markets to Benefit from Global Capital, 23 Oct. 2018,

10 Ways Mobile Phones Have Transformed Lives In Africa. 10 Dec. 2015.

Turn Your Business Into A Technology Company. Econet, 31 Mar. 2016,

W.H.O.’s Digital Health Delivers Speedy Services in Isolated Areas. 29 June 2017. CGTN,

YTF and Theirworld Bringing Code Clubs to Kenya. Youth For Technology, 5 Sept. 2018,

How Has Green Energy Affected The Lives Of Africans?

Research Question: How has green energy affected the lives of Africans?

Thesis: Green Energy is a good option for the people living in rural locations because it’s affordable, it’s easy to produce and as a result governments are trying to improve renewable energy laws.

Topic sentence 1: Green Energy is often the most affordable option.

Topic sentence 2: Green Energy is easy to produce in many different ways.

Topic sentence 3: The government have been working on ways to try and improve the renewable energy laws.

Work citied:

“African Meditation Dance.” Creative Commons, uploaded by Stefan Kartenberg, African meditation dance by Stefan Kartenberg (c) copyright 2017 Licensed under a Creative Accessed 10 Apr. 2019.

Annan, Kofi. “Power To People: Electrify Africa Now.” Power to People, pp. 1-2. Kids InfoBits,. Accessed 13 Mar. 2017.

Faris, Stephen. Poor Africans use solar power. Bloomberg.com, 2 Dec. 2015, .

Hoyle, Brian D. “Renewable Energy.” Renewable Energy, pp. 1-5. Gale Virtual Reference Library, Accessed 4 Apr. 2016.

The Importance Of Agriculture In Africa. 29 Mar. 2018. Lend a Hand, 29 Mar. 2018,.

Parke, Phoebe. “Why are 600 Million people without power?” Why Are 600 Million People With Power?, p. 1. Kids InfoBits,. Accessed 1 Apr. 2016.

Solar now Uganda. Flicker.com, 25 Jan. 2015,.

Solar School Backpacks Provide Light For Evening Study. 13 Nov. 2014. Spring Wise, 13 Nov. 2014, www.springwise.com/south-africa-solar-school-backpacks-provide-light-evening-study/. Accessed 5 Apr. 2019.

State of Renewable Energy in Africa.  The African Exponent, 2017,. Accessed 4 Apr. 2019.

TREC Map. Wikimedia Commons, 10 Dec. 2008. Accessed 15 Mar. 2019.Renewable Energy Solar Panels. Maxpixel,. Accessed 10 Apr. 2019.

How did HIV/AIDS become so widespread?

HIV/AIDS has become so widespread in Africa because the medicine used to combat it is often hard to get, people usually don’t know they have it, and because they can’t afford basic necessities so they resort to prostitution so they can survive.

Topic Sentence #1:

The medicine that treats HIV/AIDS is hard to access, if you do have access it usually costs too much for most people, and it only works if you use it every day.

Topic Sentence #2:

A lot of people don’t know they have HIV/AIDS because of a few reasons: they haven’t taken a blood test, they think it’s a very bad flu, or they are worried about having the disease.

Topic Sentence #3:

Many people in sub Saharan Africa are poor so they resort to prostitution to get money for themselves and their children.


Works Cited

Altman, Lawrence K. “Scientists Urge New Look at Feeding in AIDS Fight.” New York Times [Los Angeles], 26 Feb. 2007, Health sec., p. 1. New York Times,. Accessed 19 Mar. 2019.

Gelletly, LeeAnne. AIDS and Health Issues. Philadelphia, Mason Crest Publishers, 2007.

McNeal, Donald, Jr. “Cultural Attitudes and Rumors Are Lasting Obstacles to Safe Sex.” New York Times [MAY 9, 2010], 9 May 2010. New York Times Cultural Attitudes and Rumors Are Lasting Obstacles to Safe Sex, Accessed 26 Mar. 2019.