Topic Sentence #1: Portugal affected the kongo kingdom by merging the territories of the Kong Kingdom into the colony of Angola.
Topic sentence #2: In 1491 Portugal missionaries and artisans were welcomed to the capital of the Kongo Kingdom Mbanza. The missionaries soon gained converts and the soldiers helped Kongo defeat an internal rebellion.
Topic Sentence #3: Portugal was mostly interested in increasing their fortunes threw slave trading which played a major role in weakening the Kongo Kingdom.
Research Question: How was the Empire of Ghana influential in Central and Northern Africa?
Thesis: The reason the Empire of Ghana was so influential in central and parts of northern Africa was because they controlled several trade routes, they owned a lot of iron mines, plus Ghana also had a enormous amount of gold as well as iron.
Topic Sentence #1: One way the Empire of Ghana stayed in control was by obtaining several trading routes in parts of northern and central Africa.
Topic Sentence #2: The Empire also had a bunch of iron from all the iron mines they obtained over the years which they used to make their weapons and built important structures, such as house or meeting places.
Topic Sentence #3: The Empire of Ghana had multiple ways of providing themselves with piles of gold, whether if it was from traders that would travel to Ghana to trade within it, or if it came from nearby rivers like the Niger River.
Africa Morocco the Sahara Desert Caravan. pixabay.com/photos/africa-morocco-the-sahara-desert-2847197/.
Ancient Weapon Bow. torange.biz/ancient-weapon-bow-43774. Accessed 23 Apr. 2019.
Conrad, David C. Empires of Medieval West Africa Ghana, Mali, and Songhay. New York, Shoreline Publishing Group, 2005.
File:Ghana Empire Map.png. 27 Aug. 2006. 27 Aug. 2006, commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ghana_empire_map.png. Accessed 11 Apr. 2019.
File:Hoard of Ancient Gold Coins.jpg. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hoard_of_ancient_gold_coins.jpg. Accessed 23 Apr. 2019.
Lundberg, Dan. File:1997 270A-24 Niger River.jpg. 26 June 2007. 26 June 2007, commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1997_270A-24_Niger_River.jpg. Accessed 11 Apr. 2019.
Parton, JL. Inside an Adit of the Abandoned Sharkham Point Iron Mine, Brixham.jpg. 15 Sept. 2018. 15 Sept. 2018, commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Inside_an_Adit_of_the_abandoned_Sharkham_Point_Iron_Mine,_Brixham.jpg. Accessed 23 Apr. 2019.
Quigley, Mary. Ancient West African Kingdoms: Ghana, Mali, & Songhai. Heinemann Library, 2002.
Store of Value. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Store_of_value. Accessed 23 Apr. 2019.
“The Trans-Saharan Caravan Trade.” One for students, 8th ed., vol. 10th, Gale Virtual Reference Library, pp. 179-82. Gale Virtual Reference Library.Weapon Sword Ax the Middle Ages White. pixabay.com/illustrations/weapon-sword-ax-the-middle-ages-3199193/.
African masks are a meaningful and/or an important thing in African culture.
African masks are used for traditional rituals, dances and more depending on the culture. The Bete and Yoruba people used a mask called a funeral mask. The Bete used this mask for keeping the much feared sorcerers at bay. The Yoruba people believe that these masks embody the spirit of deceased ones. When someone is wearing such masks they can speak to the dead soul. Where the Nigil mask was a key to Ghana’s history. The Fang tribe used this mask to don them to initiate new male members into the secret society. This mask was also used to persecute wrongdoers during a ceremony.
African masks are known for their design and materials. African masks are made various things. Some of the most common materials are leather, metal, fabric, and wood. Artists also use glass, paint, fibers, shells, horns, or other items to decorate the masks because that’s what is easy to get. African masks usually have very bold and abstract designs that stand out. The design of these masks can connect to the tribe or to someone.
African masks sparked controversy among people for there cultural value.Lots of people have different opinions on selling and displaying these masks. In the early 20th century artists Pablo Picasso and Andre Derain would use some of the design of the African masks in there work. Some art originated from the bold abstract design from these masks like figure painting in western art. These designs have been seen through European eyes for years. Some people feel that using this design is a curse and it ruins the power of the mask. While others think it’s a honor. These masks are also getting put up in museums which again some think it takes away from its original meaning and magic, while other feel this is a honor and a blessing. There are a lot of opinions on displaying these masks and whether it takes away from the mask.
A lot of african cultures use masks for special events in their culture. African masks have a lot of uses and designs. Masks can be used to welcome people and say goodbye. There is also a lot of controversy around whether they should be displayed or not. African masks is a very interesting topic that has a lot of information.
Wangari Maathai is a very important and respected person who stood up for women’s rights and was determined to help make a change in the environment. Wangari Maathai was born in Nyeri, Kenya on April 1, 1940. she lived in a peaceful Kenyan village surrounded by beautiful land and terrain.
Wangari Maathai was born in Nyeri, Kenya on April 1, 1940. She lived in a peaceful Kenyan village surrounded by beautiful land and terrain.
She traveled to America to continue her studies and work to achieve her dream to learn more about the world and help others.
Wangari maathai lived a great life and helped lots of lives. She won many awards and was loved by many people.
Gallelty, LeeAnne. Ecological Issues. India, Mason Crest Publishers, 2007.
Kids InfoBits: Jan J., Ferrara. “Wangari Maathai: trees for peace.” Kids InfoBits, Cricket
Kids InfoBits: Karimi, Faith. “Kenyans gather to say goodbye to Nobel laureate Wangari Media, Feb. 2011, Maathai.” Kids InfoBits, CNN Wire, 8 Oct. 2011.
Schatz, Kate. Rad Women Worldwide. New York, Ten Speed Press, 2016.
Research Question: How did European colonialism affect the Rwandan Genocide?
Thesis: The Rwandan Genocide was a recent tragedy that has its roots in European colonialism. The European colonists created extreme racial divisions to divide the Rwandans then theses racial divisions later manifested in the Rwandan Genocide and other conflicts.
Topic Sentence #1:
The Belgians and the Germans used race to divide the Rwandans by issuing race
cards and making the Tutsis the ruling class dividing the Rwandans and making the Hutus feel inferior.
Topic Sentence #2: The racial tensions between the Hutus and the Tutsis has erupted in violence before the Rwandan Genocide in 1994 such as in 1959 when the king of Rwanda-Urundi died and again in 1986.
Topic Sentence #3:The racial tensions between the Hutus and the Tutsis has erupted in violence before the Rwandan Genocide in 1994 such as in 1959 when the king of Rwanda-Urundi died and again in 1986.
Cummins, Joseph. The World’s Bloodiest History; Massacre, Genocide, and the Scars They Left on Civilization. Quayside Publishing Group, 2010.
Rusesabagina, Paul, and Tom Zoellner. An Ordinary Man; The True Story behind Hotel Rwanda. Bloomsbury, 2006.
Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism since 1450. Ed. Thomas Benjamin. Vol. 3. Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. p996-998.
Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2007 Gale, Cengage Learning
Africa: An Encyclopedia for Students. Ed. John Middleton. Vol. 1. New York, NY: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2002. p151-167.