How Did Portugal Affect The Kingdom Of Kongo

Topic Sentence #1: Portugal affected the kongo kingdom by merging the territories of the Kong Kingdom into the colony of Angola.

Topic sentence #2: In 1491 Portugal missionaries and artisans were welcomed to the capital of the Kongo Kingdom Mbanza. The missionaries soon gained converts and the soldiers helped Kongo defeat an internal rebellion.

Topic Sentence #3: Portugal was mostly interested in increasing their fortunes threw slave trading which played a major role in weakening the Kongo Kingdom.

n . Works Cited

“Kongo, kingdom of.” The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™, Columbia University Press, 2018. Kids InfoBits, https://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A69213867/ITKE?u=maine&sid=ITKE&xid=8e637088. Accessed 11 Mar. 2019.

How was the Empire of Ghana influential in Central and Northern Africa?

Research Question: How was the Empire of Ghana influential in Central and Northern Africa?

Thesis: The reason the Empire of Ghana was so influential in central and parts of northern Africa was because they controlled several trade routes, they owned a lot of iron mines, plus Ghana also had a enormous amount of gold as well as iron.

  • Topic Sentence #1: One way the Empire of Ghana stayed in control was by obtaining several trading routes in parts of northern and central Africa.
  • Topic Sentence #2: The Empire also had a bunch of iron from all the iron mines they obtained over the years which they used to make their weapons and built important structures, such as house or meeting places.
  • Topic Sentence #3: The Empire of Ghana had multiple ways of providing themselves with piles of gold, whether if it was from traders that would travel to Ghana to trade within it, or if it came from nearby rivers like the Niger River.

Works Cited

Africa Morocco the Sahara Desert Caravan. pixabay.com/photos/africa-morocco-the-sahara-desert-2847197/.

Ancient Weapon Bow. torange.biz/ancient-weapon-bow-43774. Accessed 23 Apr. 2019.

Conrad, David C. Empires of Medieval West Africa Ghana, Mali, and Songhay. New York, Shoreline Publishing Group, 2005.

Critias. File:Commerce Transsaharien.jpg. 1 Jan. 2011. 1 Jan. 2011, commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Commerce_transsaharien.jpg. Accessed 11 Apr. 2019.

File:Ghana Empire Map.png. 27 Aug. 2006. 27 Aug. 2006, commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ghana_empire_map.png. Accessed 11 Apr. 2019.

File:Hoard of Ancient Gold Coins.jpg. commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hoard_of_ancient_gold_coins.jpg. Accessed 23 Apr. 2019.

Lundberg, Dan. File:1997 270A-24 Niger River.jpg. 26 June 2007. 26 June 2007, commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1997_270A-24_Niger_River.jpg. Accessed 11 Apr. 2019.

Parton, JL. Inside an Adit of the Abandoned Sharkham Point Iron Mine, Brixham.jpg. 15 Sept. 2018. 15 Sept. 2018, commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Inside_an_Adit_of_the_abandoned_Sharkham_Point_Iron_Mine,_Brixham.jpg. Accessed 23 Apr. 2019.

Quigley, Mary. Ancient West African Kingdoms: Ghana, Mali, & Songhai. Heinemann Library, 2002.

Salt. 18 Apr. 2019. 18 Apr. 2019, http://www.flickr.com/photos/stockcatalog/43301929001. Accessed 23 Apr. 2019.

Steinberger, Ralf Steinberger. File:Fake Sahara Desert Riders (30648018247).jpg. 26 Oct. 2019. 26 Oct. 2018, commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Fake_Sahara_desert_riders_(30648018247).jpg. Accessed 12 Apr. 2019.

Store of Value. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Store_of_value. Accessed 23 Apr. 2019.

“The Trans-Saharan Caravan Trade.” One for students, 8th ed., vol. 10th, Gale Virtual Reference Library, pp. 179-82. Gale Virtual Reference Library.Weapon Sword Ax the Middle Ages White. pixabay.com/illustrations/weapon-sword-ax-the-middle-ages-3199193/.


How are African masks connected to a culture?

African masks are a meaningful and/or an important thing in African culture.

African masks are used for traditional rituals, dances and more depending on the culture. The Bete and Yoruba people used a mask called a funeral mask. The Bete used this mask for keeping the much feared sorcerers at bay. The Yoruba people believe that these masks embody the spirit of deceased ones. When someone is wearing such masks they can speak to the dead soul. Where the Nigil mask was a key to Ghana’s history. The Fang tribe used this mask to don them to initiate new male members into the secret society. This mask was also used to persecute wrongdoers during a ceremony.

African masks are known for their design and materials. African masks are made various things. Some of the most common materials are leather, metal, fabric, and wood. Artists also use glass, paint, fibers, shells, horns, or other items to decorate the masks because that’s what is easy to get. African masks usually have very bold and abstract designs that stand out. The design of these masks can connect to the tribe or to someone.

African masks sparked controversy among people for there cultural value.Lots of people have different opinions on selling and displaying these masks. In the early 20th century artists Pablo Picasso and Andre Derain would use some of the design of the African masks in there work. Some art originated from the bold abstract design from these masks like figure painting in western art. These designs have been seen through European eyes for years. Some people feel that using this design is a curse and it ruins the power of the mask. While others think it’s a honor. These masks are also getting put up in museums which again some think it takes away from its original meaning and magic, while other feel this is a honor and a blessing. There are a lot of opinions on displaying these masks and whether it takes away from the mask.

A lot of african cultures use masks for special events in their culture. African masks have a lot of uses and designs. Masks can be used to welcome people and say goodbye. There is also a lot of controversy around whether they should be displayed or not. African masks is a very interesting topic that has a lot of information.       

Bibliography

 Artyfactory, editor. “THE FUNCTION OF AN AFRICAN MASK.” artyfactory, 2018 Accessed 28 Mar. 2019.

“African Masks: Types, Meaning, Designs, Interesting Facts.” Answers Africa   Answersafrica.com, 2019,  Accessed 28 Mar. 2019.

An African mask

André Derain.

Bete Mask

Dogon Mask Dance in Mali. . Accessed 11 Apr. 2019.

Europe.

Pablo Piccaso Bibliography. Accessed 11 Apr. 2019.

Sudan Glass Transparent Glass Sheet. www.indiamart.com/proddetail/ Accessed 11 Apr. 2019.

How Was Wangari Maathai Portrayed In The Community?

Wangari Maathai is a very important and respected person who stood up for women’s rights and was determined to help make a change in the environment. Wangari Maathai was born in Nyeri, Kenya on April 1, 1940. she lived in a peaceful Kenyan village surrounded by beautiful land and terrain.

  • Wangari Maathai was born in Nyeri, Kenya on April 1, 1940. She lived in a peaceful Kenyan village surrounded by beautiful land and terrain.
  • She traveled to America to continue her studies and work to achieve her dream to learn more about the world and help others.
  • Wangari maathai lived a great life and helped lots of lives. She won many awards and was loved by many people.

Work Cited

  • Gallelty, LeeAnne. Ecological Issues. India, Mason Crest Publishers, 2007.
  • Kids InfoBits: Jan J., Ferrara. “Wangari Maathai: trees for peace.” Kids InfoBits, Cricket
  • Kids InfoBits: Karimi, Faith. “Kenyans gather to say goodbye to Nobel laureate Wangari    Media, Feb. 2011, Maathai.” Kids InfoBits, CNN Wire, 8 Oct. 2011.
  • Schatz, Kate. Rad Women Worldwide. New York, Ten Speed Press, 2016.

How did King Leopold affect the people of the Congo.

Thesis statement: King Leopold II inslaved many people and exploited the Congo to gain wealth for himself, he became the owner of the Congo free state.

Topic sentence 1: What did King Leopold do to the Congo?

Topic sentence 2: Was King Leopold a terriorist or a humanitarian?

Topic sentence 3: How did a terrorist like King Leopold help develop the human rights movement.

American settlement in Liberia

when the x-slaves landed in Liberia how did they thrive in there new environment.

Before and during the American civil war x-slaves were willingly or forcefully sent back to Africa where they formed a settlement called Liberia.

Before and during the American civil war x-slaves were willingly or forcefully sent back to Africa where they formed a settlement called Liberia.

Liberia’s flag closely resembles the American flag it’s made of eleven horizontal red and white stripes and one white star in the upper left corner.

modern-day Liberia has a lot of African American heritage.

How did European colonialism affect the Rwandan Genocide?

Research Question: How did European colonialism affect the Rwandan Genocide?

Thesis: The Rwandan Genocide was a recent tragedy that has its roots in European colonialism. The European colonists created extreme racial divisions to divide the Rwandans then theses racial divisions later manifested in the Rwandan Genocide and other conflicts.

  • Topic Sentence #1:

The Belgians and the Germans used race to divide the Rwandans by issuing race

cards and making the Tutsis the ruling class dividing the Rwandans and making the Hutus feel inferior.

  • Topic Sentence #2: The racial tensions between the Hutus and the Tutsis has erupted in violence before the Rwandan Genocide in 1994 such as in 1959 when the king of Rwanda-Urundi died and again in 1986.

Topic Sentence #3:The racial tensions between the Hutus and the Tutsis has erupted in violence before the Rwandan Genocide in 1994 such as in 1959 when the king of Rwanda-Urundi died and again in 1986.

Works Cited

Cummins, Joseph. The World’s Bloodiest History; Massacre, Genocide, and the Scars They Left on Civilization. Quayside Publishing Group, 2010.

Rusesabagina, Paul, and Tom Zoellner. An Ordinary Man; The True Story behind Hotel Rwanda. Bloomsbury, 2006.

Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism since 1450. Ed. Thomas Benjamin. Vol. 3. Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. p996-998.

Copyright:  COPYRIGHT 2007 Gale, Cengage Learning

Africa: An Encyclopedia for Students. Ed. John Middleton. Vol. 1. New York, NY: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2002. p151-167.

Copyright:  COPYRIGHT 2002 Charles Scribner’s Sons, COPYRIGHT 2006 Gale, COPYRIGHT 2007 Gale, Cengage Learning

What were the Xhosa people famous for?

Research Question: What were the Xhosa people famous for?

Thesis: The Xhosa were mostly known for a thing called the Cattle Kill, the Cattle Kill was were there was a little girl who had a vision that if they killed off all their crops and cattle that they would be free and get their land back, but that wasn’t true and it lead to starvation and around 40,000 people died and the survivors were forced to flee and become slaves.

  • Topic Sentence #1: They had to kill everything. Like crops. And cattle.
  • Topic Sentence #2: The girl’s vision wasn’t real. It lead to starvation. And death.
  • Topic Sentence #3: There were some survivors. But they were forced to flee. And work for white people.

Works Cited

About The Xhosa Language. SA-V, SA-Venues.com, sa-venues.com. Accessed 10 Apr. 2019.

Century-old land title has kept the Xhosa together. Southern Eye, 14 Mar. 2014,. Accessed 10 Apr. 2019.

Famous truths about the Xhosa tribe. Buzz South Africa, Buzzsouthafrica, . Accessed 5 Apr. 2019.

Get a little Xhosa. Peterson Toscano, 10 Jan. 2009,  Accessed 10 Apr. 2019.

Language Culture And Beliefs. South African History Online, 26 June 2018,. Accessed 10 Apr. 2019.

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Maasai girls from Kenya attend the Eunoto ceremony. African Holocaust, African Holocaust, 18 Apr. 2015, Accessed 4 Apr. 2019.

Recovering Boys. Daily Mail, 30 June 2013,. Accessed 10 Apr. 2019.

Seminar on women identities in Xhosa societies. Johannesburg Institute For Advanced Study, Jiasjobu, 20 May 2017, Accessed 10 Apr. 2019.

Xhosa tradition. Buzz South Africa, Buzzsouthafrica, b. Accessed 5 Apr. 2019.

Xhosa Tribal Dancing. trip advisor, Trip Advisor, Oct. 2017, Accessed 10 Apr. 2019.


How did Kush’s relation with Egypt affect them?

Research Question: How did Kush’s relation with Egypt affect them?

Thesis: Kush’s relationship with Egypt affected them by taxing their trade, forcing them to move their capital city, and influencing, their religion, language, and culture.

  • Topic Sentence #1:Egypt controlled Kush’s trade by taxing and controlling them.
  • Topic Sentence #2:
  • Their relationship with Egypt affected the placement of their capital city.
    Topic Sentence #3:During their clashes with Egypt their culture, religion, and language mixed together.

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Who was Ibn Battuta and why was he important?

Research Question: Who was Ibn Battuta and why was he important?

Thesis: Ibn Battuta was a Muslim scholar and traveler who was important because he had an impact on historians and geographers, and contributed to the movement of Dar Al Islam

  • Topic Sentence #1: Ibn Battuta was a Muslim scholar that wanted to fulfill his dream by completing the hajj and to travel the world.
  • Topic Sentence #2: Ibn Battuta had an impact of historians and geographers through his Rihlah, and his other writings.
  • Topic Sentence #3: He contributed to the movement of Dar Al Islam by completing the hajj, and spreading islam throughout his long journey.

Works Cited

Benett, Léon. Ibn Battuta. 1878. Wikipedia,. Accessed 10 Apr. 2019.

Benett, Leon. Ibn Battuta, Morrocan Explorer, in Egypt. History, 2019,. Accessed 10 Apr. 2019.

Douglass, Susan, and Jacob Littleton. “Ibn Battuta in Black Africa.” Gale Virtual Reference Library, vol. 2, Detroit, MI, pp. 203-13. Gale Virtual Reference Library, Accessed 20 Mar. 2019.

Dumouza, Paul. Ibn Battuta in Egypt. History, Accessed 10 Apr. 2019.

Dunn, Ross H. “Abu Abdullah Ibn Battutah.” Kids Info Bits, 8th ed., vol. 3, Cambridge, UXL Biographies, 2011. Kids InfoBits,. Accessed 3 Apr. 2019.

Great Adventures: The Travels of Ibn Battuta. Pocketmags, Ibn Battuta. Digital file.

Ibn Battuta. Wikipedia, simple.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibn_Battuta. Accessed 10 Apr. 2019.

Ibn Battuta-The Great Traveler. Silk-Road, Accessed 10 Apr. 2019.

Journey to Mecca’ a New Film, Shows a Respectful Islam. NY Times, Accessed 10 Apr. 2019.

Reineccius, Holger. Azalai Salt Caravan. Dec. 1985. Berkeley ORIAS, Office of resources for international and area studies, 1. Accessed 10 Apr. 2019.

“Travels of Ibn Battuta 1325-54.” The Map Archive,. Accessed 10 Apr. 2019.

“WHI-Chap14-Dar Al-Islam.” WIKI, 17 May 2010, Accessed 10 Apr. 2019.

Why Arab Scholar Ibn Battuta Is the Greatest Explorer of All Time. History, Accessed 10 Apr. 2019.Ana-Vieux Farka Toure.” DigccMixter,.
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